Widely used in both live and studio recording, hypercardioid condenser microphones are designs that may belong to a niche - but it's an important niche. They're almost like a cross between a cardioid microphone and a figure-8 model, with focused forward-facing response and a fair bit of sensitivity to the rear. The pattern is basically supercardioid taken to another level, with some of the best rejection of ambient and side-on sound sources. Being so forward-focused and isolating, hypercardioid microphones are good choices for highly targeted recording setups, and as a bonus, they're among the most feedback-resistant mics on the market.
One great example of a place where hypercardioid condenser microphones shine is in live video recording. A mic like the Rode Microphones VIDEOMIC Directional On-Camera Microphone attaches directly to the camera, where its narrow pickup area ensures that it only picks up the spot where the camera is pointing. On the other hand, maybe you're interested in a microphone for stage and studio recording purposes. In that case, the Audix MB5050-HC MicroBoom-50 with M1250-HC Hypercardioid Mic (or its bigger 84" brother) could be the way to go. Since these microphones are tall enough to be positioned above the sound source, they're fantastic for overhead miking of choral ensembles and other large performances.
Naturally, there are also recording hypercardioid condenser microphones that can go on a standard mic stand, such as the Audio-Technica AT4053B Hypercardioid Condenser Microphone. Any mic in this section could be the best choice for your needs as long as those needs involve a focused, highly directional pickup pattern. Be sure to keep the rearward sensitivity in mind when designing your recording setup, of course - like any other high-precision piece of pro audio gear, a hypercardioid mic needs to be configured properly to deliver the best results. But once you have it set up, there's no doubt that one of these microphones can do a lot for your ability to record in challenging environments.
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